Fifa Soccer Rules for Handball

The topic of handball is an often contentious area of the soccer rulebook, which seems to be involved in some form of controversial incident on an almost weekly basis. FIFA, the world soccer governing body, does not define the term handball in its rulebook. However, FIFA does have a series of rules referring to the outcome of a player¡¯s handling of the ball during a match and the various consequences of this action for both the player and the restart of a match.
A handball occurs if any player, other than the team¡¯s goalkeeper within his own penalty area, deliberately handles the ball when in play. A ball can be handled with any part of the arm, from the tips of a player¡¯s fingers right up to the shoulder.
A handball should result in a yellow card caution if a player handles the ball for the purpose of deliberately preventing an opponent from getting possession of the ball. The resulting restart to play should be a direct free kick from the spot at which the infringement was committed for the non-offending side. If this occurs inside the penalty area, a penalty should be awarded.
A handball becomes a sending off offense when a player is judged to have handled the ball to prevent a direct scoring opportunity such as a shot on an empty goal, or to have prevented a move that might have resulted in a direct scoring opportunity such as a breakaway. The infringing player should be given a straight red card and a direct free kick taken from the spot of the infringement. If this occurs inside the penalty area, a penalty should be awarded.
A handball should not be awarded if a player is ruled to have handled the ball accidentally. This refers to a player either attempting to protect himself from injury, for example by placing the hands in front of the face and then being hit by the ball, or a player being hit on the arm by the ball without moving towards the ball and without being able to move out of the way. An example might be a snap shot hitting the arm of a defender at point-blank range. However, if a player¡¯s arm is in an unnatural position, for example outstretched or above their head, then a foul should be awarded whether accidental or not.

Exercise After a Colonoscopy

A colonoscopy is a procedure used to see inside the colon and rectum to detect inflammation, ulcers and abnormal growths. Polyps and small tumors can even be removed during the procedure. The National Digestive Information Diseases Clearinghouse indicates that your first screening colonoscopy should be at age 50 if you have no gastrointestinal symptoms or cancer risk factors. There is no reason why you can’t exercise after a colonoscopy following a brief recovery period.
You may want to schedule an exercise routine around preparation for a colonoscopy, as your body is depleted of solid food for a short time. All solids must be emptied from the gastrointestinal tract by consuming a clear liquid diet one to three days prior to the procedure. Clear liquids include fat-free broth, strained fruit juice, water, plain coffee or tea, sports drinks like Gatorade and gelatin. Don’t drink liquids that contain purple or red dyes. A laxative or enema preparation is usually required the afternoon or evening before a colonoscopy. You need to inform your doctor of all diagnosed medical conditions and medications you are taking so he can provide you with specific instructions.
A colonoscopy usually causes minor discomfort and is about a 30 to 60 minute outpatient procedure. When you first enter the exam room, you will be asked to lie on your side on an examination table; you will be sedated to help you relax and minimize any discomfort. A colonoscope with a small camera on the end is moved through your large intestine, which is inflated for a better view. Then, the colonoscope is withdrawn so the lining can be examined. If necessary, the doctor performs a biopsy, removes polyps and small tumors and seals areas of bleeding.
Following a colonscopy, you will be taken to a recovery room and may stay there for one or two hours. Your sedation will begin to wear off during the recovery period, but you will still need someone to drive you home for safety. You may experience abdominal cramping or bloating because of the air injected during the procedure, but these feelings will shortly resolve. Always follow your doctor’s discharge instructions after a colonoscopy, but you should be able to resume a normal diet and activity level after a few hours of rest. Biopsy results should be available in about one week.
According to the Colorectal Care Program at Columbia University, you should not perform strenuous activities the afternoon or evening following a colonoscopy. If you have had a standard procedure, you should be able to resume normal activities, including an exercise regimen, the day after a colonscopy. If you are not sure about exercise, consult your doctor.

Sonny Jurgensen

Quarterback Sonny Jurgensen dissected defenses with his pinpoint passing for 18 seasons, from 1957-74. The fun-loving redhead was a fan favorite. “I had as much fun playing as anybody,” he said. “But on the field, it was serious business. I was interested in winning.”
A substitute with the Philadelphia Eagles from 1957-60, Jurgensen (born 1934) became a starter in 1961.
He promptly led the Eagles to a 10-4 season, winning All-NFL honors, setting two league records, tying a third league mark, and breaking four Eagles marks.
His 235 completions, 3,723 yards passing, and 32 touchdown passes were all tops in the NFL.
After two more seasons with the struggling Eagles, Jurgensen was traded to the Redskins before the 1964 campaign.
For the next five seasons, he and teammates Bobby Mitchell and Charley Taylor provided an air attack unlike any seen in the nation’s capital since Sammy Baugh in the 1930s and 1940s. Still, the best the team could do was post a .500 finish in 1966.
A classic drop-back passer, Jurgensen was known for his poise under pressure. “All I ask of my blockers is four seconds,” he said. “I beat people by throwing, not running.”
In 1969, Vince Lombardi took over the Redskins’ coaching reins. Many wondered if the taskmaster coach and the free-spirited quarterback could work together. The answer was a resounding yes. In fact, the two developed a mutual admiration for each other. “In five days, I learned more from him than I had in 12 years of pro football,” Jurgensen said.
Under Lombardi, the 1969 Redskins finished second in their division, and Sonny won a second league passing championship.
In 1970, Jurgensen had another successful season, completing 22 touchdown passes, but Lombardi’s untimely death slowed the Redskins’ progress.
A series of injuries, coupled with the defensively oriented philosophy of new coach George Allen, limited Jurgensen’s playing time over the next few years. Finally, following the 1974 season, Jurgensen-one of the finest pure passers ever — called it quits.

1960 Edsel

One of the most intricate, yet obscure, stories in American automotive history is that of the creation of the Edsel. The 1960 Edsel, the brief final act in the tragicomedy that was Ford Motor Company’s attempt to break into the lower medium-price market and more closely compete with General Motors.
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That the 1960 Edsel existed at all was due to Henry Ford II, who felt a sense of obligation to the dealers who sold the car that bore his father’s name. That it was so short-lived can be attributed to then-Ford Vice President Robert S. McNamara. A number of factors have traditionally been cited in the demise of the Edsel: an unanticipated downturn in the U.S. economy at the time of its introduction; a dramatic turn to small European imports; the realization that, despite its breathless build-up, the Edsel was a curiously styled but otherwise conventional car. However, a strong argument can be made that none of these events really played as much of a role as did McNamara’s firm conviction to scuttle the Edsel from the outset. At the car’s press preview in late August 1957, McNamara casually told Fairfax Cone of Foote, Cone & Belding, the agency handling Edsel advertising, “We have plans for phasing it out.” Even before the Edsel was the Edsel, it was already a political football at Ford. In 1952, John R. Davis, the company’s vice president for sales (and an ally of Edsel Ford in creating the Mercury in the 1930s), was charged with making a study of Ford’s product positioning vis-a-vis its competitors. Study recommendations included the creation of a new top-end Continental Division and a new upper-medium-price nameplate. Since medium-price at Ford meant Mercury, the Lincoln-Mercury Division was handed the study for review, a task that fell to Assistant General Manager Richard Krafve. The Krafve team’s 1954 report suggested a new medium-priced make that could be produced by Lincoln-Mercury and sold through its existing dealers. But this didn’t sit well with Lewis Crusoe, who was promoted from general manager of the Ford Division to group vice president of car and truck operations in January 1955. He had long envisioned a division-to-division competition with General Motors. To make a case for his grand plan, Crusoe enlisted Francis “Jack” Reith to work up a presentation to support such a corporate organization. Reith, like McNamara, one of the 10 professorial “Whiz Kids” hired by Henry Ford II in 1946 to help him revive the doddering company, made his pitch to Ford directors on April 15, 1955.
They wholeheartedly embraced the plan, which, among other things, called for separate Lincoln and upwardly mobile Mercury divisions and the creation of a Special Products Division. Special Products was given the task of creating a new medium-priced “E” car; Krafve — ironically — was named general manager for the new division. The “E” car had one influential opponent, however. McNamara, who succeeded Crusoe as head of Ford Division, was quietly appalled that the corporation would budget hundreds of millions of dollars to bring out a car, indeed a division, to compete head-on with General Motors. He was convinced the car would not turn a profit for three years or more. Many will argue that McNamara not only saw the cheaper range of Edsels as a threat to his Ford Division, but that he had a pathological compulsion to destroy it. There’s more to it than that. McNamara had a sixth sense for what the company could and could not market profitably in the 1950s. While his methods and ambition may have rubbed some at Ford the wrong way, McNamara almost never made a wrong decision, armed as he always was with mountains of information and analysis.

One of the first steps McNamara took to put a stumbling block in the Edsel’s path was to prevent Special Products (later the Edsel Division) from recruiting the best talent within the company, especially from within his own division, the performance of which he always stressed as critical to the health of the entire corporation.
In this and other decisions, McNamara had strong support from Ernest R. Breech, chairman of the Executive Committee, and others in top management at the Ford corporate level. In the end, half of the personnel in the new division came from outside the company. Another problem for the Edsel was where to build it. It was decided to build all Edsels, and nothing but Edsels, in one plant at Louisville, Kentucky. Then, very late in 1956, a decision was made to assemble Edsel Rangers and Pacers in Ford plants and Corsairs and Citations in Mercury plants. As a result, it was virtually impossible for Edsel management to maintain an acceptable degree of quality control on the Ford and Mercury assembly lines. And McNamara, who, upon Crusoe’s retirement, became group vice president of all vehicle operations in May 1957, was not inclined to put his imprimatur on Krafve’s request to allow Edsel inspectors into the other divisions’ plants. Frankly, this was a time when all Ford products, save Lincoln, were at a low point in quality control. (The 1957 Ford arguably was the poorest-assembled Ford of all time.) The problems were only magnified when one to three Edsel Rangers and Pacers were added to the nearly 60 Fords coming down the lines every working hour. Further problems with suppliers likewise bedeviled both makes. It really wasn’t until the 1959 model year that Ford began to get its quality control in order.
Continue to the next page to learn about the introduction of the Edsel in 1957.
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Willie Stargell

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New York Yankees

Block Island Southeast Lighthouse

Fifteen miles beyond Montauk Point, the easternmost spot on Long Island, is Block Island, a 25-square-mile piece of windswept land to the east of Long Island Sound.
Roughly midway between the lighthouses at Montauk Point, New York, and at Point Judith, Rhode Island, the Block Island Southeast lighthouse has served as an essential navigational aid for ships cruising into Long Island Sound or proceeding south toward New York City.
The local waters are known for their submerged reefs, strong currents, and — because of the close proximity to the North Atlantic — their quickly developing fog banks and storms. This lighthouse has directed more than one vessel away from danger
and toward safety.
Visitors to Block Island normally take the ferry, but air transport is also available. What they find on their arrival is a quiet, scenic landscape that is far less crowded and hectic than Martha’s Vineyard or Nantucket Island just to the north.
The Block Island Southeast lighthouse itself, with its thick octagonal tower and attached manorial living quarters, resembles something from a Stephen King novel and is said to be haunted.
Built of weathered red brick, with a steep roof of green shingles and windows with white frames, the lighthouse keeper’s home evokes both the architecture and the way of life of the bygone Victorian era.
The Block Island Southeast lighthouse occupies a rugged but soft cliff of clay and sand that is eroding from the effects of wind, rain, and gravity. During
the early 1990s, the lighthouse was jacked up on hydraulic lifts and moved back from the brink by nearly the length of a football field, where it will, it is hoped, be safe for many decades to come.

Metal vs. Plastic Cleats

Top athletic performance, no matter what sport you play, depends first and foremost on stability. You need to have your feet firmly planted underneath you before you can throw, catch, kick, twist, turn or push off for a run. A pair of good cleats gives your feet much-needed traction on the turf for sports that take place on grass or dirt, like football, baseball, soccer, golf, lacrosse, rugby and others. The spikes are arranged in different ways for different sports. Despite these differences, there are only two real choices: cleats with metal or plastic spikes.
Cleats with metal spikes have been used in sports like baseball, football, golf, soccer and rugby for decades. Depending on the sport, the metal spikes are in different shapes, come in different lengths and are arranged in different patterns. The spikes themselves are made from steel for strength and durability. For mid- and high-range models, the metal spikes are replaceable, so that if one breaks off, bends or wears out before the shoe, you don¡¯t have to replace the entire pair of cleats.
The other type of cleat comes with plastic cleats molded in the soles of each shoe. The shape of the plastic spikes also varies by sport, along with the configuration, however the length of the spikes is shorter to prevent premature breakage. The spikes of plastic cleats are somewhat elastic, even for hard-molded models, and can bend under heavy pressure, such as full-sprints, pivots and slides. The plastic spikes are also not replaceable and wear down quickly.
Cleats with metal spikes are usually more expensive than plastic cleats, but the increased durability and effectiveness in turf sports — like baseball, soccer, golf and football — mitigate the added cost. Metal spikes dig into grass and dirt deeper than plastic spikes, and the metal stays rigid, while plastic bends, diminishing the overall amount of traction. For walking on any surface other than dirt or grass, cleats with metal spikes are loud and cumbersome, while plastic cleats are quiet and nondescript. Metal spikes, due to their expense and long life, are better suited to teen and adult athletes who no longer experience bursts of foot growth, especially for those playing in highly competitive leagues. The increased cost is usually worth the improved performance. Plastic cleats are better suited to young players who need to consistently increase shoe size every few months or recreational players who may not need top-level performance at a top-level price.
Some leagues, especially at the youth level, ban the use of cleats with metal spikes due to injury concerns. For example, Little League Baseball prohibits the players, coaches and umpires who participate in divisions for 9 to 10 year olds and younger to wear only plastic cleats. Many leagues that regulate other youth sports, such as football and soccer, also prohibit the use of metal spikes, essentially requiring the use of plastic cleats by default. Some adult recreation leagues for flag football and softball also prohibit the use of cleats with metal spikes.

Kellen Winslow

Kellen Winslow is well-remembered for his courageous play during the 1981 AFC divisional play-off game between the San Diego Chargers and the Miami Dolphins.
For much of the game, Winslow — the 6’5″, 250-pound tight end for the Chargers — suffered dehydration from the heat, humidity and numbness in an injured shoulder. Three times he was helped off the field; each time he returned to catch yet another of his play-off record 13 receptions.
And if that wasn’t enough, he even blocked what would have been a game-winning field goal with just seconds remaining in regulation play. It was vintage Winslow.
This was truly a game for the ages. The epic match ended with just 1:08 left in overtime when Rolf Benirschke kicked a 29-yard field goal to give the Chargers a 41-38 victory. The teams traded possession six times in the overtime period.
A gifted athlete, Winslow (born 1957) did not play high school football until his senior year because his mother feared he might get seriously injured. Even after just one season of high school football, he received offers from four schools — Kansas State, Kansas, Missouri, and Northwestern.
He chose the University of Missouri, where he captured All-American honors. In four seasons, he caught 71 passes for 1,089 yards and 10 touchdowns.
Selected in the first round of the 1979 NFL draft, Winslow got off to a quick start with 25 receptions before being sidelined with a broken leg in the seventh game. He returned in 1980 with a career-high 89 receptions for 1,290 yards. Twice more he made 88 catches.
Even though he was plagued by injuries through much of his nine-year career, Winslow still amassed an impressive 541 receptions for 6,741 yards and 45 touchdowns. At the time of his retirement, he ranked 14th among all NFL pass receivers in number of receptions.
It’s fair to say that Kellen Winslow didn’t merely play tight end, he redefined the position.

Caloric Content of the McDonald’s Fish Sandwich

McDonald’s Filet-o-Fish sandwich is a fried fish patty served on a steamed white-flour bun. The fast food establishment first offered the sandwich in 1962. With 380 calories, the fish sandwich contains fewer calories than many of the burger offerings.
Filet-o-Fish is made from pollock or a New Zealand fish called hoki. The fish is combined with wheat flour, water, food starch, corn flour, salt, whey, dextrose, spices, cellulose gum, preservatives and stabilizers to form a patty containing 120 calories. The breaded fish patty arrives at the restaurants frozen and is cooked in a combination of sunflower and canola oil. It is topped with 25 calories worth of American cheese and 90 calories worth of tartar sauce made from soya bean oil, gherkins, onions, egg yolks, corn starch, sugar, vinegar, salt, xanthan gum, capers, calcium chloride, natural flavorings, mustard flour, potassium sorbate and parsley. The white bun contributes 150 calories.
Of the 380 calories, 45 percent, or 170 calories, come from fat. The sandwich’s 15 grams of protein contribute 60 calories, or 16 percent of the calories. Approximately 40 percent of the sandwich’s calories come from the 38 g of carbohydrates.
Filet-o-Fish has fewer calories than most of the burgers. An Angus Deluxe provides 750 calories, a double Quarter-Pounder provides 740 calories and a Big Mac provides 540 calories. The plain hamburger, with 250 calories, and the cheeseburger, with 300 calories, are lower in calories than the fish sandwich. Filet-o-Fish also has fewer calories than the grilled chicken sandwich, which offers 420 calories.
Although not extremely high in calories, the Filet-o-Fish sandwich contains 640 milligrams of sodium and 40 mg of cholesterol. It also has 3.5 g of saturated fat. The Institute of Medicine, or IOM, recommends limiting sodium intake to 1,500 mg daily. The IOM does not set recommendations for cholesterol or saturated fat, because the organization suggests you eat as little of these as possible. Adding fries to your Filet-o-Fish sandwich order significantly increases your calorie intake. A small fries increases your intake by 230 calories, a medium by 380 calories and a large by 500 calories.

Bruce Smith

Few players will ever dominate a position the way Bruce Smith has mastered the defensive end spot for the Buffalo Bills. His speed and strength have made him one of the most feared and respected players in the modern game.
Teams routinely double- if not triple-team the former Outland Trophy winner and Virginia Tech All-American. And, even though he’s lightning quick, Smith is not just an outside pass rusher. “He’s so powerful,” Minnesota Vikings quarterback Warren Moon pointed out, “that he can bulldoze over you.”
The first player selected in the 1985 NFL draft, Smith (born 1963) has been the Bills’ prime defensive weapon since his rookie season. Named AFC Rookie of the Year by the NFL Players Association, he is Buffalo’s all-time sack leader. A nine-time Pro Bowler, the 6’4″, 273-pounder has been named the AFC Defensive Player of the Year five times.
Most observers agree that the 1990 season was Smith’s finest. His 19 quarterback sacks were second in the league, and more than once his dominant play changed the complexion of a game.
Against the New York Jets, he recorded two sacks, defensed a pass, and forced two fumbles. In Week 14, against the Indianapolis Colts, he sacked quarterback Jeff George four times in the first 20 minutes of the game. And in Super Bowl XXV, he came up with one of the biggest plays of the game when he sacked New York Giants quarterback Jeff Hostetler in the end zone for a safety, giving the Bills a 12-3 lead.
Even after 12 seasons, Smith remained dedicated to preparing for an opponent. At 34, he showed no signs of slowing down and still spent countless hours studying game films and working out in the weight room. An intense player, Smith will eventually have to shift his focus from game-day preparation to the easier task of preparing for his inevitable induction into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.