American Football Skills

American football, not to be confused with the World Cup game of the same name, requires a variety of skills to move a leather ball toward an opponent’s goal and to prevent the opponent from entering yours. Throwing the ball through the air, knocking other players to the ground, running around or through opposing players and kicking the ball away from other players or between goal posts are the main actions taken during a football game.
Passing relies on the basic sport skill of throwing, used in pitching a baseball, serving a tennis ball or throwing a javelin. A football player performs the same basic movements and creates the same basic kinetic chain of events, starting with a push off the ground with the feet, core rotation, opening of the hip and forward arm movement, ending with forearm pronation. Passing requires accuracy because the player to whom you are throwing might have opposing players near him trying to block or intercept the ball. Because of the size of the ball, which is smaller than a basketball but much larger than most other sports balls, significant muscle power is required for long passes.
Blocking is the act of putting your body between an opponent and one of your teammates to stop your opponent from tackling your teammate. Because offensive players cannot hold an opponent with their hands, blocking requires a mastery of techniques to keep the opponent from slipping past you.
Playing one of the receiver positions in football requires more than an ability to catch a ball. Receivers must avoid opponents who try to block or intercept balls. They fake or run away from opponents to get in the clear to make a catch. Some football plays require a receiver to run to a certain position without looking at the quarterback, then turn around after the ball has been thrown and make the catch. Receivers must also try to make catches knowing that they will be hit hard by an opposing player as soon as or shortly after they make the catch.
Rushing is the act of running with the football from the start of an offensive play. Skills needed for rushing include an ability to anticipate the moves of opposing team members and the skill to make quick, lateral adjustments to avoid opposing players.
After a score, the scoring team kicks the ball to the opposing team to restart play. If a team is in poor position on the field, it might wish to kick the ball down the field rather than try to move it with a pass or rush. In these situations, a kicker usually tries to kick the ball far because he is giving possession of the ball to the other team. Kickers also try to score points by kicking a ball through a set of upright goals.

How the World Trade Center Worked

When we look back on September 11, 2001, we think mainly of people. We mourn for the victims of the attacks, we empathize with their families, we honor the rescue workers, and we reflect on our own experience. At the same time, we remember all of the technology of that day — the airplanes that the hijackers used as flying bombs, the buildings they damaged and destroyed, and the heavy equipment used in the massive rescue and then clean-up effort. Like countless events throughout history, the attacks of September 11 were a crushing mesh of man and machine.
The most prominent technology on that day, of course, was the World Trade Center complex. After the attack, the WTC’s Twin Towers came to symbolize not only the day itself, but also a collective emotion of people all over the world.
In this article, we remember the Twin Towers for everything they were: a remarkable technological achievement, a representation of an ideal, and, ultimately, a staggering reminder of our own vulnerability. In remembering this proud structure, we ho?nor the spirit in which it was built, and we memorialize the victims of the attacks.
?The original idea for a world trade center in New York is generally credited to David Rockefeller, one of industrialist John D. Rockefeller’s many grandsons. In fact, the idea was proposed soon after World War II, a decade before Rockefeller ever got involved, but he was the one who actually got the ball rolling.
In the 1950s and ’60s, while serving as chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank, Rockefeller? was dedicated to revitalizing lower Manhattan. He hoped to energize the area with new construction, in much the same way his father revitalized midtown Manhattan in the 1930s with Rockefeller Center. As part of his plan, David Rockefeller proposed a complex dedicated to international trade, to be constructed at the east end of Wall Street. Rockefeller believed that the trade center, which would include office and hotel space, an exhibit hall, a securities and exchange center and numerous shops, would be just the thing to spur economic growth in the area.
By the 1960s, he certainly had something to gain from the WTC project. He had just put up the expensive 60-story Chase Manhattan Bank tower in the financial district, and wanted to increase the value of the bank’s investment. But he was also driven by the spirit of international unity. A world trade center would bring together people from all over the globe, a noble ideal in the decades following World War II.
With the help of his brother, Nelson Rockefeller, the governor of New York state at the time, David Rockefeller got The Port of New York Authority involved. The Port of New York Authority, now known as the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, is a government institution that heads up public projects in the New York and New Jersey port area. While the Port Authority is a public organization, it functions like a private corporation — it charges its “customers” directly and profits from investments, rather than taking tax money.
Since its creation in 1921, the Port Authority had been concerned mainly with bridges, tunnels, airports and bus transportation. It had never undertaken anything near the scale of the World Trade Center before, but nonetheless, the organization was the most logical choice to head up the project. It had the rare combination of government connections, diverse resources and the power of eminent domain.
Rockefeller commissioned early designs for the WTC in 1958, the Port Authority got involved in 1960, and the initial plans were made public in 1961. Then things slowed down considerably. For years, the Port Authority slogged through fiscal problems, public relations debacles and legal wrangling, not to mention the unpopular task of evicting the hundreds of businesses and homes occupying the building site.
With all the negotiations and logistical conflicts, excavation didn’t actually start until 1966. By that time, the design and scope of the project had changed completely, as we’ll see in the next section.

Acrobatic Exercises

Doing crunches and sit ups aren’t the only way to get in shape. Flips, climbs, spins and other acrobatic moves can also yield the results you desire in an exercise regimen. Several sports such as gymnastics, pole dancing and parkour involve different types of acrobatic exercises. In addition to adding variation to your normal workout routine, acrobatic exercises can improve flexibility and build strength. And you don’t need to be a trained acrobat to do some of them. Many acrobatic exercises are simple enough for beginners to learn.
A somersault is an acrobatic move in which a person’s body moves in a circular motion with feet passing over head. Somersaults are not only a beginner acrobatic move that helps improve flexibility but also a move that can assist with improving stability. Start with your feet tucked in a squat position, placing your hands on the ground at shoulder width apart. Tuck your head forward so your chin is in your neck and begin moving forward so your head is touching the ground. Follow the momentum, moving forward so you begin to roll with your back rounded.
Cartwheels are an acrobatic exercise commonly found in gymnastics. It is a sideways rotary movement in which you travel to the ground while the body inverts and legs travel over the body to land in a standing position. Cartwheels are the foundation to more advanced flips practiced in acrobatic sports. Begin by doing a lunge with your favorite foot in the front while reaching your arms over your head. Follow by transferring your weight to your front leg, and place your hands on the ground one at a time. The first hand down should be the same side as the leg in front in the lunge. Kick your legs up in a handstand keeping your body sideways with your legs forming a “v-shape” in the air. Then bring your feet down in a split leg format, remembering that the first leg to come down is the last leg to go up.
A handstand in which you balance on your hands with your feet up in the air is an acrobatic move often found in gymnastics, cheerleading, dance and even karate. It also a basic exercise that helps build the strength and core muscles that can be applied to more complex moves and tricks. Doing them can also strengthen your arms and shoulders. Handstands are much easier to learn while leaning against a wall. Begin by placing your hands about 6 inches from the wall. Then kick your feet up while pressing your head into the wall. Once you feel you are in a stabilized position, slowly move your legs away from the wall so they are not resting on it. Finally, move your head away and hold the position for a few seconds.
Aerial silk performances are often recognized as acrobatic exercises done in circus acts. However, it’s now an acrobatic exercise that can be done in gyms. The exercise involves climbing two long pieces of fabric suspended from a high ceiling. While most moves involve being suspended at least 19 feet in the air, beginners won’t make it past about 1 foot off the ground. A common beginner exercise involves pulling your body up from your hands similar to pullups on a bar. First hold the fabric and wrap it around your arms twice. Put your feet together and lift your legs to a 90-degree angle, using your core and arm strength.

Jerry Rice

Jerry Rice and the San Francisco 49ers were heavy favorites to defeat the Cincinnati Bengals in Super Bowl XXIII. But as the fourth quarter began, they were trailing 13-6. It began to look as though the Bengals were about to pull off a huge upset. But then Jerry Rice, the 49ers wide receiver, took over.
On the fourth play of the 49ers’ first drive of the final quarter, Rice leaped high into the air to snag a Joe Montana pass.
As he came down, he stretched his 6’2” frame forward just enough to cross the Cincinnati goal line for the tying score. But the determined Bengals answered with a field goal to take the lead 16-13.
Rice went back to work. This time, with just 1:15 remaining, he turned a short Montana toss into a 27-yard gain to the Cincinnati 18-yard line.
Two plays later, he streaked across the middle of the field. The Bengals secondary, fearing his speed and athletic ability, adjusted and double-teamed him.
This left John Taylor wide open for the touchdown throw. Respect for Rice had thus set up the game-winning touchdown pass. His 11 catches for a Super Bowl-record 215 yards earned him MVP honors.
Rice (born 1962) was the 49ers’ No. 1 draft choice in 1985. He had attended tiny Mississippi Valley State, where he established 18 NCAA Division II records. Named to the NFL’s 75th Anniversary All-Time Team, he holds virtually every meaningful NFL receiving mark.
Many experts contend that Rice is the greatest receiver the game has produced. His impressive credentials include 13 Pro Bowl selections, 14 1,000-yard receiving seasons, and 17 50-catch seasons.
A virtual scoring machine, he caught an NFL-record 22 touchdown passes in the strike-shortened l987 season and a career-record 197 in his 20 seasons.
To put some of Rice’s career marks in perspective, consider how high he has set the bar. His 1,549 receptions are 448 more than second-place wide receiver Cris Carter, and Rice’s 197 touchdown catches outpace Carter by 67.
Rice’s 22,895 receiving yards are 7,961 more than runner-up Tim Brown. And Rice’s 207 total touchdowns are 32 more than the next-most, by running back Emmitt Smith.
Perhaps most incredibly, Rice missed only 17 regular season games in 20 years, and only three games if you disregard 1997, when Rice was sidelined with torn knee ligaments. His 303 games are the most ever by an NFL receiver and rank only 51 games off the overall league record for games played.
To learn more about football greats, see:

How to Teach a Young Offensive Lineman to Stay with His Block

The running game is the first aspect related to offensive football that coaches teach young players. Running with the ball is all about offensive linemen getting off the line of scrimmage and opening holes for the running back. This requires aggression, strength, footwork and power. While the initial explosion of the offensive lineman may be responsible for giving the running back a crease through which to run, the ability to sustain that block keeps the hole open and helps the running back gain additional yards.
Move out of your stance the instant the ball is snapped and drive your hands into the chest of the defensive lineman. You must deliver a stunning blow with your hands to get the defensive lineman moving backward to open a hole for the running back.
Drive with your feet throughout the process of blocking your opponent. This is called chopping your feet, and must be sustained throughout the blocking process. Take short, quick steps, and do not stop until you hear the whistle.
Grasp the defensive lineman’s jersey with your hands so you can steer him to one side or the other when attempting to open a hole. The rules allow the offensive lineman to use his hands during the blocking process as long as he is grasping the front of the opponent’s jersey and not the sides or the back. It’s much easier to push the defensive lineman in one direction when you grab ahold of him.
Drive him down and to the ground to finish the block. When you get the defensive lineman off of his feet, he cannot get involved in the tackle. This is called a “pancake” block because the defensive lineman is flat on his back — like a pancake — and it is a one-sided victory for the offensive lineman.

Lou Gehrig

Position: First Baseman Teams: New York Yankees, 1923-1939
On June 2, 1925, when New York Yankees backup first sacker Fred Merkle, who was giving the club¡¯s longtime regular Wally Pipp a day off, seemed about to collapse from the heat, manager Miller Huggins called on rookie first baseman Lou Gehrig as a late-inning replacement. Merkle never started another game in the majors, and Pipp never got his job back.
Gehrig played a record 2,130 consecutive games for the Yankees. He did not always play all nine innings and he was not always stationed at first base, but one way or another his name always appeared on the lineup card. Only very rarely did he play for the sole reason of extending his monumental streak. He played because he was the best all-around first baseman in baseball history.

In 1934, Gehrig won the Triple Crown while copping his only batting title with a .363 mark. Two years later he garnered his final home run crown with 49 four-baggers, tying his own personal high. When Gehrig¡¯s batting average slipped to .295 in 1938 and his RBI and homer totals also dipped, it seemed just an off year at first. The strange slump persisted into the next season, restricting him to a meager four singles in his first eight games. When teammates began congratulating him for making routine plays, Lou knew the time had come to step down.
On May 2, 1939, he took himself out of the lineup for the first time in nearly 14 years. A few weeks later he entered the Mayo Clinic for tests, which revealed that he had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis — a hardening of the spinal cord. The rare disease has no known cure and is always terminal. Knowing he would soon die, Gehrig retired formally on July 4, 1939, in a special ceremony at Yankee Stadium. Tearfully, he told the packed house, ¡°Today, I consider myself the luckiest man on the face of the earth.¡±

Following the 1939 season, Gehrig took a job with the New York City Parole Commission. He worked with youth groups and played bridge with his wife and friends until just a few weeks before his death on June 2, 1941. He was inducted into the Hall in 1939.
Here are Lou Gehrig’s major league totals:
See more information on the Baseball Hall of Fame:

See the players in the Baseball Hall of Fame by position:
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New York Yankees

How Barrier Islands Work

Barrier islands, sometimes called barrier spits, are found on coastlines all over the world, but are most noticeable along the eastern coast of North America, where they extend from New England down the Atlantic Coast, around the Gulf of Mexico and south to Mexico.
Barrier islands are popular vacation spots, including resort communities from Atlantic City, New Jersey, to Miami Beach, Florida. Many people own vacation homes or condominiums on barrier islands, and more barrier islands are being developed for tourism. However, barrier islands are fragile, constantly changing ecosystems that are important for coastal geology and ecology. Development has posed dangers to these ecosystems and has also increased the risk of property damage every year from hurricanes and Nor’easters.
In this article, we will examine the fragile ecosystems of barrier islands. We’ll explore how these islands are formed, what habitats and life are present on them, how they change, the consequences of development and the recreational activities that attract tourists to them every year.
Barrier islands are long, narrow, offshore deposits of sand or sediments that parallel the coast line. Some barrier islands can extend for 100 miles (160 km) or more. The islands are separated from the main land by a shallow sound, bay or lagoon. Barrier islands are often found in chains along the coast line and are separated from each other by narrow tidal inlets, such as the Outer Banks of North Carolina.
The formation of barrier islands is complex and not completely understood. The current theory is that barrier islands were formed about 18,000 years ago when the last Ice Age ended. As the glaciers melted and receded, the sea levels began to rise, and flooded areas behind the beach ridges at that time. The rising waters carried sediments from those beach ridges and deposited them along shallow areas just off the new coast lines. Waves and currents continued to bring in sediments that built up, forming the barrier islands. In addition, rivers washed sediments from the mainland that settled behind the islands and helped build them up.
Barrier islands serve two main functions. First, they protect the coastlines from severe storm damage. Second, they harbor several habitats that are refuges for wildlife.
Let’s take a look at the parts of a typical barrier island.
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10 Tax Tips for Students

What could be more carefree than being a student? You eat leftover pizza for breakfast, you do your laundry once a month and you occasionally show up in class when the cost-benefit analysis of grades versus effort tips.
This is exactly what people who are not currently students assume: College life is nothing but a predictable, drowsy conveyer belt. In reality, most kids over the age of 18 have a lot more to worry about than Saturday football games. Consider, for one, the hefty college bill they’re accruing over the course of their education. Or the urgent need to collect a paycheck to pay off books or living expenses.
And nope, a lot of them can’t escape taxes. For the next few pages, we’ll look at some ways that students can get ahead of their annual April obligations.
If you’re making more than a standard deduction, then you must file taxes. (In 2014, the standard deduction is $6,200.) Do keep in mind that’s earned income, meaning that you received it as wages or fees from working. Unearned income also must be reported, but only if it’s over $1,000. (Unearned income might be from investment accounts or interest.) But even that might not be necessary; there are some ways for parents to report their children’s unearned income on their own return [source: Fishman].
It’s also not a great idea to assume that you don’t have to file taxes if your earned income is below $6,200. Even if you made less than that, you might be due for a refund if tax was withheld from any of your earned income. Look and see if you’ve been paying taxes on your pay stubs; if so, you might just find that filling out a return will pay off.
If you’ve decided to go ahead and file, it’s really important that you check with your parents or guardians to make sure you’re all on the same page about who’s claiming what. Keep in mind that your parents might still want to claim you as a dependent, even if you’ve got your own fancy income and tax return. The exemption they earn is nothing to sneeze at, after all.
That might be cold comfort to a student who really wants that $250 refund. But keep in mind that if a parent is providing more than 50 percent of your support, you’re probably not going to get a personal exemption anyway. The one thing you don’t want to do is try to claim both — that you’re a dependent for your parents and also on your own. The IRS doesn’t appreciate that scam, and it’ll cause a lot of headaches for you and your parents.
If you’re really bummed that your IRS-sponsored beer money is now a part of an exemption for your parents, do your best to convince them to give you a bit of the cash for yourself. (If that works, tell my parents to send me some money too.)
If you’re a full-time college student, there are several tax credits that can help you relieve some of the burden of paying for higher education. One biggie is the American Opportunity Tax Credit (AOTC), which allows up to $2,500 per eligible student. It’s available for the first four years of post-secondary education, and 40 percent of it is refundable. That means that you can receive up to $1,000 as a refund if you owe no taxes. You can claim it if you have a single income of up to $80,000, or $160,000 for joint filers.
If you’re a fifth-year senior (or sixth or seventh — we don’t judge), you might be interested in the Lifetime Learning Credit (LLC). It’s set at the same income limits, but you can take it for any number of years of higher education. It is designed to credit up to $2,000 of eligible college costs, and it’s also quite helpful for grad students. Note that you can’t take both the AOTC and the LLC during the same year.
Now listen: There are probably college students with incredibly complicated taxes. Maybe they’re like a young Bruce Wayne, with all sorts of interesting financial holdings and business stakes. When it comes to most college tax returns, however, most of us tend to skew more toward Peter Parker. Our accounts aren’t exactly diversified, and our wages aren’t raising IRS eyebrows.
For that reason, it’s probably not entirely necessary for you to hire a fancy accountant/tax preparer. You should probably consider filling out the 1040EZ form, as long as you meet some qualifications — you’re filing without dependents, you make less than $100,000 and your income only comes from certain sources. (There are more rules, which you can read about on the IRS website [source: IRS].) It’s probably going to save you loads of time and money to do it yourself online.
Had to take out some student loans to pay for college? Join the club. A lot of folks do, and the government is even willing to give you some tax relief for the interest accrued on the loans. And here’s some great news: The Student Loan Interest Deduction can be claimed even if you don’t itemize your taxes. That means that the deduction will be taken out of your adjusted gross income, leaving you less taxable income in general.
You can write off up to $2,500 worth of student loan interest. But don’t think that you can get away with trying to shoehorn that car loan interest in: Any loan must have been taken out solely for educational expenses, and it can’t just be a loan from a relative or employer. This exemption also only qualifies you for the interest you paid during the year; you’re not going to be able to write off future payments.
Looking for more tax tips for students? Check out TaxAct: College Tax Whiz.

Rehabilitation of a Fractured Heel Bone

Your calcaneus bone forms the heel at the rear of your foot and provides an attachment point for your Achilles tendon. Fractures in this bone come in several forms and can seriously degrade your ability to walk and perform everyday tasks. You can recover from these fractures with the help of a doctor-approved rehabilitation program.
Most heel bone fractures stem from high-energy physical impacts or collisions, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, or AAOS. Depending on the severity of the impact that causes your fracture, you may have a relatively straightforward, simple injury or a more complex injury that causes displacement of the broken ends of your heel, penetration of your skin, damage to supporting soft tissues or multiple bone breaks. The severity of your fracture also determines whether your injury requires surgical or nonsurgical treatment. However, whatever treatment you receive, the guidelines for your rehabilitation will remain more or less the same. The only real difference is in the length of your recovery.
The aim of rehabilitation for a heel bone fracture is maintenance of your day-to-day independence while you regain your range of motion, strength, endurance and ability to accurately sense the position of your limbs, MD Guidelines explains. As soon as your pain levels are reduced, you will start mobility exercises for your foot and ankle. A physical therapist can help you with these exercises, as well as exercises that improve your foot and ankle strength. Please note that these exercises will likely temporarily increase your foot pain. However, they are an essential part of your recovery.
When you recover enough to put weight on your affected foot, your doctor and therapist will ask you to start performing walking exercises, which may require the use of a cane and/or a protective boot. If you received a cast during your fracture treatment, your doctor and therapist may also ask you to perform range-of-motion exercises to improve the function of your surrounding joints. Once your cast is removed or you progress in your walking therapy, you will start performing additional mobility, strength and balance exercises designed to ease you back into your pre-injury routine.
During the course of your rehabilitation, you may need as many as 20 visits with your physical therapist, MD Guidelines notes. In many cases, your injured bone will heal within six to 12 weeks, but it may be as long as several years before your bone can withstand high amounts of physical stress. Fracture-related problems that can continue after rehabilitation include pain from a permanently deformed bone, permanent changes in the way you walk and irritation of your heel region when you wear shoes or other footwear. Consult your doctor and physical therapist for additional information on heel fracture rehabilitation.

5,000-Calorie Mass Diet

If you’re an athlete trying to gain muscle mass, you’ll need to consume more calories than you burn. However, simply eating more won’t give you the results you want unless your meals provide a balanced proportion of carbohydrates, protein and fats. A 5,000-calorie mass-gaining diet should consist of approximately 60 to 65 percent carbohydrates, 20 to 25 percent fat and 15 to 20 percent protein. Ask your doctor or a sports nutritionist for help designing a healthy meal plan.
To avoid feeling overfull, you should spread your 5,000 calories out over the course of the day, starting with a breakfast that supplies around 1,000 calories. A typical breakfast might be three large scrambled eggs, two slices of toast spread with trans fat-free margarine and jelly and a cup of 100 percent fruit juice. Use egg whites or egg substitute for less fat and cholesterol and choose whole-grain products like whole-wheat bread for more fiber, vitamins and minerals.
Lunch on a 5,000-calorie diet might consist of a 1/4-pound lean ground beef patty, lettuce and tomatoes on a whole-wheat hamburger bun paired with 16 ounces of low-fat milk and a salad containing fresh vegetables, dried fruit, sunflower seeds and reduced-fat dressing. This meal would provide approximately 815 calories. Avoid obtaining your protein from fatty cuts of beef or pork and processed or fried meats. Instead, pick skinless poultry, fish, shellfish, tofu, beans and legumes prepared with a minimum amount of added fat.
An athlete aiming to consume 5,000 calories per day could have 6 ounces of grilled or roasted chicken breast, 2 cups of whole-wheat pasta topped with 1 cup of tomato sauce, 1 cup of steamed green beans and 1 cup of low-fat milk followed by a dessert of reduced-fat ice cream and chocolate syrup at dinner for a meal supplying about 1,400 calories. Fruits and vegetables like tomatoes and green beans provide athletes with calories and essential nutrients with virtually no fat. Eat a variety of colorful produce each day. Frozen and canned fruits and vegetables are a good option as long as they are unsweetened or prepared with little or no sodium. If your previous diet did not contain lots of produce, increase your intake gradually to allow your digestive system to adjust to your higher fiber consumption.
Aim to eat every three to four hours on a 5,000-calorie diet. Midmorning, afternoon and evening snacks interspersed between your larger meals can help you do this. A 610-calorie morning snack could be 2 ounces of nuts, 1/2 cup of dried, unsweetened fruit and one piece of whole fresh fruit, while your afternoon snack might be a whole-wheat bagel, tuna fish mixed with reduced-fat mayonnaise, low-fat cheese and 1 cup of unsweetened applesauce for 815 calories. A post-workout snack could be 2 cups of chocolate milk for about 355 calories. Pick unsalted, dry-roasted nuts and low- or nonfat dairy products for the least amount of added fat and sodium.
Aim to drink at least 1 cup of fluid per hour throughout the day, with 2 to 3 cups of liquid like a sports drink just before or after exercise and 1 to 2 cups for every half-hour while you’re exercising. Drink an additional 2 cups of liquid for every pound of weight lost when your daily exercise is complete. Drinking plenty of fluid will prevent dehydration and help you avoid gastrointestinal problems from a high intake of fiber-rich grains, fruits and vegetables.