Labral Repair and Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises

Shoulder labrum tears are relatively new to the sports medicine injury list mainly due to the continued advancement of arthroscopic surgical techniques according to the EOrthopod website. Shoulder labrum tears occur in sports that involve repetitive overhead throwing or movement or by direct trauma, such as landing on your shoulder while diving to catch a ball. Shoulder instability following a subluxation or dislocation can lead to an eventual labral tear.
The shoulder is the most mobile and flexible joint in the body. This freedom of movement unfortunately makes it susceptible to injury and instability. Three bones make up the shoulder joint, the scapula, or shoulder blade, the humerus, or arm, and the clavicle, or collarbone. Although the joint is considered a ball and socket joint, the glenoid cavity of the scapula that receives the head of the humerus is considered relatively flat. The labrum, which is a soft fibrous cartilage, acts as an extension of the glenoid cavity and forms a ring to increase its contact area and provide added support to the shoulder joint. Several shoulder ligaments and muscle tendons attach to the labrum for additional support.
Symptoms of a labral tear include a catching sensation during overhead movements with pain, weakness, loss of range of motion and shoulder instability. The discomfort is usually difficult to localize and there is no visible swelling. Labrum tears are classified by the area in which they occur. According to the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons, or AAOS, a SLAP tear, or superior labrum anterior to posterior, occurs on the upper half of the labrum from anterior to posterior. A Bankart tear is the opposite, a tear on the bottom half of the labrum from anterior to posterior. SLAP lesions are usually the result of repetitive injuries and can include the inflammation of the biceps tendon. A Bankart tear is more often associated with an anterior-inferior subluxation or dislocation that can also tear the inferior glenoid ligament.
After a positive diagnosis of a labral tear by magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, treatment initially will involve physical therapy to reduce pain and discomfort and regain normal movement and strength. Depending on the demands of your sport or work, surgery may be required to repair the tear and stabilize the shoulder. Surgery is performed arthroscopically and involves suturing the labrum back into place. Any additional damage noticed during surgery to the tendons and ligaments will also be addressed.
Following surgery, your doctor will provide you with a treatment protocol to properly rehabilitate your shoulder. Each surgeon will have his own protocol but it generally includes four stages. First is immobilization, for up to four weeks. Second is recovery, lasting four to six weeks post-surgery. Third is the strengthening stage, six to 12 weeks post-surgery. Finally you return to work or your sport anywhere from four to six months post-surgery. Immobilization During the immobilization phase the sling or shoulder stabilizing brace should be worn at all times except during hygiene and at physical therapy. To begin with your therapist will start you on passive range of motion exercises which involves no muscle activation. Your shoulder surgery should not limit you from doing normal range of motion and strengthening exercises for the hand, wrist and elbow. Exercises like squeezing a ball, grip strengthening and light weight biceps curls with shoulder by your side can be done with little or no pain in your shoulder. Isometric exercises will be started in this phase. Pressing your elbow against the wall to strengthen the abductor muscles is a common exercise. Recovery During this phase the sling should no longer be required and you will begin active range of motion exercises in all planes. walking your fingers up the wall or using a stick to aid and guide the arm as you raise it above your head are two typical exercises. Your therapist will actively assist you through some range of motion exercises to ensure proper muscle activation and reduce compensation. Progressive strengthening exercises of the shoulder using tubing and pulleys weight in all directions against resistance will also be part of this rehabilitation phase. Continue with your wrist, hand and elbow strengthening exercises. Strengthening Full range of motion both actively and passively are expected by this phase of your rehabilitation. Strengthening exercises with the pulleys will get progressively harder and the introduction of free weight shoulder exercises will begin in this phase. A major component of rehabilitation is proprioceptive exercises. Proprioceptive exercises are reactionary type exercises like the underhand tennis ball toss or rebounder exercises using a mini-trampoline that force the shoulder to react instinctively. Return to Work or Sport Full range of motion is a requirement or return to work or sport. Strength, power and endurance levels should be comparable to the uninjured arm and the introduction of sport or work specific exercises for eventual return is essential to prevent reinjury. Depending on the demands of your work or sport, your recovery could be anywhere from 4-6 months post surgery. Following the surgical protocol with the aid of your physical therapist will ensure a safe and injury-free return to work or play.

Training With The U.S. Women’s Olympic Soccer Team

After winning the gold medal in Beijing and stirring the nation with their performance in last year’s World Cup, one thing was clear about the U.S. Women’s Soccer Team: Their training and preparation weren’t broke.
But they had to fix it, anyway¡ªtheir packed calendar demanded it.
While most teams do heavy strength workouts comprised of Olympic lifts in the off-season to build overall strength, the national team hasn¡¯t really been off-season in awhile¡ªthey went straight from competing in the World Cup to training for and qualifying for the London Olympics. And while it may seem like a lack of iron-slinging wouldn¡¯t hurt a soccer player, that¡¯s precisely what it can do.
“Strength work is really crucial for soccer players, first and foremost for injury prevention,” says Heather O’Reilly, a 10-year veteran of the national team. “Leg strength is obviously super crucial, but so is our core, and we’re battling with our upper bodies as well.”
To compensate for the lack of weight room time and to have a consistent tool on the road, the team has incorporate the TRX suspension trainer in the past year.
Defender Heather Mitts says she likes the TRX for building core strength (see some of Mitts’ and O’Reilly’s favorite exercises, with instructions, in the sidebar), but also in replacing some of her Olympic lift training with bodyweight alternatives.
“The atomic pushups [an exercise combining a pushup with a jackknife] are one of my favorites,” she says. “You can do the inverted pushups, the y-fly, t-fly. Those are awesome, and we’re still getting good bodyweight strength work in.¡±
Of course, it¡¯s not just strength work the ladies will need to win gold. Soccer players run around 6 miles per game, and not at a jog¡ªto keep up an Olympic effort for 90 minutes, they¡¯ve got to sprint. And playing lots of soccer isn¡¯t enough to keep that level of conditioning.
To supplement it, the team¡¯s fitness coach, Dawn Scott, has players perform half-mile intervals on the treadmill. Get a feel for their training by trying this workout: Run hard for three minutes, then rest for three. Repeat this sequence as many as 10 times.
Workouts like that, paired with on-the-road strength training, means the team¡¯s training hasn¡¯t waned. But more than preparation, the players hope that new, dynamic skill shines brightest in London.
“Our generation of American players wants to prove that not only are we putting in the work, but that we’re more sophisticated soccer players,” O’Reilly says. “Our game is becoming more possession-oriented, and we’re scoring in a lot of different ways.”
“Our hard work is always going to show,” Mitts adds. “But how we’re evolving as a team–that’s what we’ll really be showing on the field [in London].”
Grab a TRX at your gym and try these suspension moves, favorites of the U.S. national team’s Heather Mitts and Heather O’Reilly.
Place your feet in the foot cradles, with your legs together, and assume the classic pushup position, with your hands directly beneath your shoulders. Bend your elbows so that you start at the bottom of the pushup position. As you press up, bend your knees and pull them towards your chest without allowing your hips to hike far into the air. Return your legs to plank position as you bend your elbows and return to the floor.
Stand facing the TRX with arms extended toward it at shoulder height. Your entire body should be aligned from head to heels. Keep the arms straight and lift them smoothly until they are in a ¡°y¡± position, wide and overhead. Lower back to the start position with control, and repeat.
Stand with your arms wide in a T position so that the handles of the TRX are out to each side, and the trainer is taut. This will be the finishing position of the exercise. Keeping your body straight and your feet in this position. Lean back as you close your hands together with arms straight, maintaining a straight body line and taut TRX as your body goes back to a 45-degree angle. Still with arms straight, pull your hands apart so that you return to the standing T position. Repeat.
Stand in front of the suspension trainer with the handles interlocked. Place your right foot behind you so it rests in both foot cradles with your knee bent at a 90-degree angle. Bend your standing (left) knee and lower your body toward the floor. As you lower, your suspended leg will drive backwards; keep the 90-degree bend in this knee. Continue lowering until your left thigh is parallel to the floor. Press through your left heel back to start, and repeat. Switch sides.
Stand facing the TRX with arms extended toward it at shoulder height and hands angled to 45 degrees. Your entire body should be aligned from head to heels. Pull your body toward the handles until the hands are drawn into the mid torso area, keeping your upper arm at a 45- to 90-degree angle to the torso. Lower back to the start position.
Stand facing the TRX with your arms extended, slightly bent, and at shoulder height. Extend one leg to the front and lean back slightly. Push your hips back to perform a single-leg squat, using the TRX to maintain your balance. Press back to start, and repeat.
Place your feet in the foot cradles of the TRX, and extend your body so it forms a straight line from head to heels, with your arms directly beneath your shoulders. Brace your core as if you were about to be punched. Hold this position for 30 seconds.

CrossFit Football Workouts

CrossFit Football is a strength and conditioning program made specifically for athletes involved in football and similar sports, though anyone can follow the program. As the name indicates, it is based on CrossFit, a popular workout regimen rooted in functional movements performed at high intensity. CrossFit is scaled to meet the needs of the individual athlete, making it accessible to everyone, regardless of ability or age.
Playing sports such as football requires excellent metabolic conditioning, stamina and endurance, as well as mental toughness. CrossFit Football was developed by NFL players and coaches to help athletes successfully meet these demands. By incorporating functional movements performed at high intensity, CrossFit Football training aims to simulate the conditions players face during the game. This training is part of the Workout of the Day (WOD) listed on the the CrossFit Football website. Workouts are varied and rarely repeated so that routine is avoided. A typical WOD might have the athlete complete as many repetitions as possible for three given movements in 10-to-15 minute windows. Workouts are always timed with the goal of improved fitness through intensity.
Football players and other athletes also require strength and explosive power. Athletes can develop these skills with the program’s comprehensive strength training regimen. The daily strength workout, also listed on the CrossFit Football website, is designed to be completed before the WOD and after taking a short rest. The strength program employs classic lifts such as the bench press, deadlift and squat.
Athletes need to be quick and fast. Therefore, speed work is a regular feature of CrossFit Football workouts. In addition to the WOD, which is a timed event, dedicated speed and sprint work are features of the program. A typical sprint workout might include 10 rounds of 400-meter sprints with one minute of rest between sprints.
CrossFit and CrossFit Football workouts are extremely demanding and should not be entered into lightly. Participants new to CrossFit should seek out a good CrossFit gym with excellent coaches who have been certified in CrossFit. When you do CrossFit and CrossFit football, start out slowly, scale workouts as needed and focus on developing consistency in your workout routine before increasing intensity. With these caveats in mind, anyone can make use of CrossFit and CrossFit Football to improve their fitness.

Things to Do Before a Rugby Game

Rugby is a strenuous contact sport similar to American football, with two teams kicking, throwing and carrying the ball across the field in an attempt to score. Games last 80 minutes, and players require a significant amount of strength, speed and endurance on the field. Approaching your rugby game in the right frame of mind can keep your body healthy and help you bring your team to victory.
Training to be a rugby player can be intense and includes a massive amount of strength-building and endurance drills. However, giving yourself time to rest and gear up for your game is just as important as practicing your moves and building up your muscles. Mike McGurn of the “London Telegraph” stresses the importance of resting before a game. Get a good night’s sleep of at least eight hours to ensure you’ll have a bright start to your day and energy to sustain you during the match. Don’t schedule any vigorous activity for the morning before an afternoon match; lay low and reserve your energy for later.
Finding the right balance of nutrition is an important thing to do before a rugby game. Eating too much or too heavy a meal before playing rugby can cause all of the usual gastrointestinal complaints, including cramping and gas. A good-sized, protein-based meal, such as eggs, fruit, cheese and yogurt early in the day provides you with the energy you’ll need later as you’re playing. Eat another snack or mini-meal about three hours before game time that includes carbohydrates that digest easily. Hydration is key when preparing for a rugby practice or match. The amount of energy you put forth during play, combined with a potentially hot day, can sap you of strength and fluids. Start drinking water early on game day and continue until match time.
Warming up your muscles with a stretching routine prevents injuries during the game. The United Kingdom’s Rugby Football Union suggests a 20- to 25-minute warm-up that includes low-intensity movement like jogging to raise your body temperature and loosen muscles, range of motion exercises to promote flexibility, footwork drills and a five-minute, high-intensity, full-contact drill to wrap up the warm-up session. Range of motion exercises can include head and neck rotations, shoulder shrugs, knee bends and leg lifts.
Prepare for the big game the night before by getting your gear together. Pack your bag with your jersey, socks, shoes, ball, a towel and a change of clothes for after the game. If you can buy a bag with a waterproof portion, you can store your muddy clothes there after the game.

The Best Football Helmets for Preventing a Concussion

.888 concussions occurred over a 3 season period among 17549 high school and collegiate level football players according to a study. Concussions occur far too regularly on youth, high school, collegiate and professional fields every year.
Much of the effectiveness of the helmet is linked to coach and player education. The helmet itself must manage the impact energies when helmet to helmet contact or helmet to surface contact occurs according to researchers at Virginia Tech University.
This is significant considering the aggression displayed on the field and the amount of concussions and head injuries reported as a result. The Riddell 360, Rawlings Quantum Plus, Xenith X2 and Riddell Revolution Speed score best for helmets reducing concussion risk in comparison to other helmets when evaluated using the STAR rating system.
Teach players to keep their head and eyes up when they hit. Young players especially need reminding multiple times a day– never lower their head when tackling.
Teach and reteach youth and high school players in proper use. Never use a football helmet without the NOCSAE, National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment, warning label on the exterior.

Can I Take Calcium Tablets With Milk?

Calcium supplements come in capsule, tablet and chewable form. Chewable calcium looks like candy and you don’t have to drink anything with it. You should take capsule or tablet calcium with food and liquid. Milk contains calcium naturally and does not need to accompany a calcium supplement, unless specified by your physician. Milk also interferes with the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals. If you’re taking a multivitamin that contains calcium, take it with water.
Calcium supplements are best absorbed when you take them with food. You can take calcium citrate on an empty stomach as well as with food, notes MayoClinic.com. You can eat any type of food when you take your calcium supplement. There are also no restrictions on taking your calcium supplement with a glass of milk, although you should also eat something.
If you are looking to increase the absorption of the calcium supplement, drinking milk may help. Some milk brands are fortified with vitamin D, which helps to metabolize calcium in the body. In addition, you may use a calcium supplement that contains vitamin D or a multivitamin supplement, which contains both vitamin D and calcium.
Be careful not to take too much calcium in the form of a supplement or through dietary means, such as drinking excessive amounts of milk. The recommended daily allowance of calcium for adults is 1,000 mg per day, but seniors and pregnant women need slightly more. The tolerable upper limit for calcium is 2,000 mg, which is the highest amount you can take without experiencing toxicity. Calcium overdose can cause an increased risk of kidney stones and prostate cancer. These risks are normally associated with calcium overdose in supplement form.
If you are unsure of how to take your supplement, ask a pharmacist or your doctor. If you are lactose intolerant or do not drink milk, you can take your supplement with a glass of water and food to minimize side effects and increase absorption.

Anaerobic Training & the Wingate Test

Exercise is typically divided into either aerobic or anaerobic categories. During aerobic respiration, the body uses oxygen as the main fuel source. This form of exercise lasts longer than two minutes and is associated with weight loss and endurance training. Anaerobic training, however, is characterized by short bursts of power and is used to increase muscles mass and strength. One of the most popular and definitive tests to determine anaerobic power is the Wingate test.
Anaerobic training refers to any form of exercise which is at a near maximal intensity during which the body can no longer process oxygen for fuel fast enough to meet the demands of the muscles. These exercises are brief, lasting no longer than two minutes, and utilize a fuel stored in the muscles called Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, along with lactic acid. Eventually ATP stores will be exhausted and the muscles will fatigue due to the buildup of lactic acid. This point of exhaustion is the anaerobic threshold and can be improved with training. Anaerobic training can improve speed, power and overall muscle mass.
The Wingate Test was developed during the 1970s at the Wingate Institute in Israel. The test requires the subject to operate either a bicycle or arm ergometer at full exertion for 30 seconds against a mechanical brake. The test begins with no resistance, and the brake applied within three seconds. The amount of resistance used is relative to the body weight of the athlete and can vary from either .045 kilograms to .075 kilograms per kilogram of body weight. A specialized counter on the ergometer records the number of rotations in five second intervals.
The findings of the Wingate Test measure the peak anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity and anaerobic fatigue of the subject. Peak anaerobic power is the highest measure of force generated during any of the five second intervals and is expressed in terms of watts. Anaerobic capacity is the sum of all of the five second intervals and represents the total amount of work accomplished during the test. Anaerobic fatigue is the percentage of decline in power. These figures can give an athlete insight into their strengths and weaknesses, allowing them to adjust their training program.
In addition to adapting the amount of resistance for more athletic individuals, several variations of the Wingate test have been created to suit different needs. An arm ergometer can be used to measure upper-body strength and endurance. Because the Wingate test procedure and equipment is focused towards cyclists, the running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test has been developed to provide similar results for runners.

Fun Football Facts for Kids

Football may not have quite the same American cachet as baseball and apple pie, but it’s still a national tradition. Even if you don¡¯t play the game, watching the fast action, tricky plays and hard-hitting tackles can be a thrill. You can enhance the game even more with some fun football facts that include a bit of history and legend.
One play is called a safety, though is not very safe at all for the team that gets tackled. A safety happens when the team on defense tackles the offensive team in its own end zone, a place the offensive team does not want to be. The team that tackles the opposing player gets two points for keeping the other team stopped up in its end zone. Safeties are not that common in professional football, the Fun Trivia website notes, so it¡¯s a big deal when teams score one.
Don¡¯t be confused by all the different football positions, as most of them describe the kind of action a player usually does. Kickers kick. Punters punt. Running backs run with the ball. Wide receivers are the guys that catch, or receive, the ball after they run up the field. The quarterback … well, he throws the ball or hands it off to running backs. The quarterback term comes from rugby, where the quarterback would stand one-quarter of the way back on the field from the forward players, Word IQ explains.
The quarterback gets a lot of attention and is often the star of the team, although no team works without teamwork from everybody. The quarterback is in the center of the action. He¡¯s usually the guy who grabs the ball right after it¡¯s snapped, then throws it to one of his receivers, hands it off to a running back or tries to run with the ball himself. One very famous quarterback is Joe Montana, who played for the San Francisco 49ers. He was on the winning team in four Super Bowls and named Most Valuable Player in three, the IX Games website notes.
Some players become well known for things other than their playing skills. Joe Namath was a notable quarterback for the New York Jets, but also has another claim to fame: he was a television pitchman for pantyhose. Namath endorsed the Beautymist brand of pantyhose in the 1970s, saying he didn¡¯t wear them, but if they made his legs look good, they can make women¡¯s legs look good. Sometimes superstitions follow football around, like the Campbell¡¯s Chunky Soup legend. Any professional football player that has his picture on the soup can, the story goes, ends up injured or otherwise out of the spotlight. The legend might be true, the Snopes website explains, or it might not. There are many reasons why players end up injured or disappear from the spotlight ¡ª and being on a soup can before it happens might only be a coincidence.

How to Exercise After Getting a Shot

There are many different kinds of shots with varying side effects, though there is no medical evidence that indicates exercising after getting a shot is harmful. In fact, exercising boosts your immunity and may help you fight the infection, illness or disease the shot was given to prevent. For example, an article on the Rice University Wellness Center website indicates that those who exercise moderately before and after a flu shot develop a higher immunity. Since different shots have different side effects, talk to your doctor about your desire to exercise after getting a shot.
You may have to perform a less-intense version of your normal exercise routine so you don’t feel sore and feverish. If you exercise too hard when you don’t feel well, it may cause fatigue and damage your immune response. However, if you do not feel ill, you should go ahead and exercise. Some studies have shown that cardiovascular exercise can actually improve the immune system response for better protection from certain vaccines, such as the flu vaccine. Side effects from shots usually last one to two days. When they subside, you can continue your normal activities.
Keep your injection site bandaged while you exercise. This may help reduce discomfort during your exercise routine if you are experiencing pain and inflammation.
Drink plenty of water when you exercise so you don’t become dehydrated. Water can help your body heal and quickly recover from mild fever and inflammation.

Healthy Weight & Height for Bodybuilding

Bodybuilders cannot use normal height-to-weight ratio charts because they are designed for people with less muscle mass. Muscle weighs more than the same amount of fat, so a bodybuilder consulting a chart that doesn’t take more than average muscle into account will appear to be overweight; even obese as compared to standards for non-bodybuilders.
Weight to height charts let you know inch by inch what your ideal weight should be as a male bodybuilder. The amount of weight increases by five to 10 pounds per inch. If you’re 5 feet, 5 inches, then your ideal weight is 160 pounds. If you’re 5 feet, 6 inches it is 165 pounds. The ideal weight for someone 5 feet, 7 inches is 170 pounds and for 5 feet, 8 inches it is 175 pounds. Ideal weight increases by five pounds per inch until you get to 5 feet, 11 inches. From an ideal weight of 190 pounds for someone 5 feet, 11 inches, the ideal weight jumps 10 pounds to 200 pounds for someone six feet tall. It then increases by 10 pounds per inch.
In addition to checking that your weight is ideal for your height, you can also measure yourself to make sure that your muscle to bone ratio is best for your frame. Having these sizes makes you look like your muscles are bigger than they actually are. Even if you are in the correct weight range for your height, that doesn’t mean that you have the right proportion of muscle to fat. The measurement ratios give you a general idea if your weight is coming from enough muscle and not too much fat. First, measure your wrist, ankle, head, pelvis and knee. Then, multiply your wrist size by 2.52 to discover your ideal arm size. Measure at the bicep. Multiply your ankle size by 1.92. This is your ideal calf size at the largest part of the calf. Your neck should be .79 of your head measurement. Multiply your pelvis by 1.48 if you’re a man to figure out what your chest measurement at the nipples should be. Your waist measurement at the belly button should be only .86 of your pelvis size. Multiple the size of your knee by 1.75. This is your ideal thigh size at the largest part of the thigh. If any part of you doesn’t measure up right, increase the amount of exercise you do for that body part.
If you’re overweight for your height, it’s a good time to cut back on your portions and do more cardio. Add 60 to 90 minutes of moderate intensity cardio to your workout routine and cut out 500 to 1,000 calories per day. Moderate intensity activity increases your heart rate but shouldn’t make talking too difficult. Hiking or swimming are examples. The goal is to lose weight slowly at a preferred rate of one to two pounds each week so you don’t lose muscle or stress out your body. Adjust your calories and exercise if you’re losing more weight than two pounds a week, such as only doing 60 minutes of cardio and only eating 500 fewer calories.
To maintain your ideal weight, it is important to keep eating the same number of calories.Your body needs calories to maintain muscle. If you’re already at a healthy weight, don’t make changes. If you cut calories and add cardio to lose weight, then once you reach your ideal weight slowly decrease exercise and increase calories. Weigh yourself often so you’re sure that you’re neither losing or gaining.